Revive the earth in your imagination. Ancient cities, architectural pearls ... Each of them inspires us, invites us to travel, discover the places we do not know. There is only one Inner city inside Thousands of towns. Located in the heart of Baku, the country's most famous but most mysterious monument is being erected. Maiden's Tower...
It is built on a cylindrical fountain on the giant slope of the Caspian Sea coast. A large, long, narrow wall that connects the castle to the sea from the coast. Because of its position on the rock, the height of the tower is 31 meters north and 28 meters in the south. There are eight floors. The only entrance of the castle was opened on the western side of the fortress in 1859. The lack of detailed, accurate information about the monument's written sources has created many assumptions about its history and function.
Some researchers point out that the tower was built in the Middle Ages and that there was a desire for the city's general defense system. However, a group of scholars believe that some of the architectural features of the castle allow it to date its history earlier. Thus, the construction of the Maiden Tower took place in two stages. Its lower part was built in the twelfth century, based on an inscription over the upper part of the tower. Some of the characteristic signs and the compatibility of astronomical dimensions give rise to the idea of using the tower as an observatory in a certain historical period. Based on legends about Maiden Tower in the etymology of the people, it is possible to assume that the castle in ancient times acted as a temple of fire worship. The reason why a tower named “Giz Galasi” by people is explained the fact that it is an impassable fortification for the enemy.
Did you know?
In Zoroastrianism in the ancient East, four main elements of nature-air, fire, water, and soil-were considered sacred, each of them had their own Goddess. Because of the importance of water since drought in the East was a huge problem, Anahita (Nahid), the Goddess of water was considered superior to others. Interestingly, during the archaeological excavations, a fish figure made of bronze and in a legendary style was found near the Maiden Tower. Fish figure in this form has not yet been found in other territories of Azerbaijan. Therefore, it is assumed that the Maiden Tower will be built in honor of the goddess of water.
Seven beauties of seven world described by the master of Azerbaijani poetry, poet N.Ganjavi (XII century) in"Seven Beauties", are dedicated to seven planets, each of which has its own color and embodies a specific day of the week. The second of them is the red palace on the Mars planet and in this regard the second day of the week - Tuesday. It is impossible to imagine Novruz holiday (March 20-21), directly related to the ancient and spiritual world of the Azerbaijani people, without mentioning on Tuesday. In our modern era, 4 Tuesdays (water, fire, wind and soil) are celebrated in succession; people are make bonfire and gathered around it. Thus, the magical Maiden Tower, which has been the main element of the fire-worship religion for hundreds of years has been a monument dedicated to the planet Mars or Fire worship. It is no secret that this planet symbolizes the fire on world mythology.
There is also an opinion that the Maiden Tower is also a "temple of Caesarean", which was established in honor of the Roman Emperor Domitian (I century). However, this is undeniable fact that the book found in Gobustan (1948) was named after Domitian and the XII Lightning Legion.
Naturally, it would not be possible for the name of such a monument not to be associated with love adventure. Some researchers believe that the heroes of the legendary love epic , Leyli and Majnun, written by N. Ganjavi, are dedicated to Maiden Tower. Scientists believe that Leyli and Majnun were not literary people, but real persons, and Akhsitan I commanded to raise this monument on his son’s grave, who had called Majnun. But the most interesting thing is that during the excavations, while the well inside the Maiden Tower was cleaning, gravestone fractures were discovered. At the same time, it is possible to count 31 stones on the cylindrical part of the monument, and 24 stones on counter frame. It is assumed that 31 are the vertebrae in men’s spinal column, and 24 are the number of ribs in the human chest. In Holy books, it says that God created Adam from the left rib. The appearance of the Maiden Tower in this context reflects two lovers, a man (waist) - a "human backbone" and a woman - a "curved ribs."
There is also a hypothesis that the 31 numbers are one month, 24 hours a day, four windows overlooking the south are seasons, and the 12th to the floors are the number of months in a year. Generally, a group of scholars are trying to prove that the monument is the observatory function.
There is a legend that Baku was occupied by a ruler called Khunsar. Khunsar built a magnificent palace in the city and began to enjoy a happy life with his wife, Zummuriada. But after a while Zummuriada gained more power and declared himself a goddess, and by her command, a magnificent castle was built. The goddess then isolates herself for a long time, and after many years the monument becomes almost a symbol of virginity. Scientists note that the name "Zummuriada" is associated with emerald stone, and that Greek word for it is called Isis. Emerald was considered the most precious stone in ancient Egypt and used to decorate sarcophagus.
It should be noted that the well-known British Egyptologist Flinders Petry pointed out that Baku had united Egypt with Azerbaijan, identifying with Bakhau in the famous book Dead. In the plan of Baku, drawn up by Russian engineers in 1806, Maiden Tower called "Kalis Khunsar". It is believed that this expression means "Castle of Khunsar". According to the ancient Egyptian mythology, Isis was the wife of Asar, the God of Sun. However, this word has been distorted and called "Khunsar". All this information suggests that Maiden Tower is the temple of the God of Sun and, therefore, it could be used as an observatory where the sun and other celestial bodies are observed.
So you can visit the Maiden Tower, feel the richness of the ancient East legend, and travel to centuries ago. Every stone you touch is full of mysteries and mystic past. When you get to the summit of the castle, the fascinating beauty of the country will be engraved in your memories forever.